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Learning Links For All TBrs

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Thanks to TB forum member Stumbo for creating this exhaustive list of links. There is a wealth of valuable information contained in these threads, useful to bass players of all skill levels. Enjoy.

Note: Please contact Stumbo on Talkbass.com when broken links/problems are found. Also, if you find a more current or better link, send those on as well. Suggestions welcome. Thank you.

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***** Talk Bass Slang, Abbreviations, Conventions and Definitions *****

***** Audio Terms *****



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If I only knew then...
Best musical advice
Every bassist should know
How to really "learn" a tune"
Save your hearing
Stumbo's TB Custom ear plug primer



Where to start
Online help-me-tune-my-bass website
First bass advice
First amp advice
Bass trainers/practice w/o amps
Upgrade bass/amp first?
Connecting an amp to a cabinet
Using two combos (amp/speaker) together

Books/Learning Tools

Jim Nazium and Stumbo's Free downloadable interactive fretboard learning tool for Microsoft Excel
2 starter books
First Timer's Intro to Bass Guitar (picture based) w/CD
Intro/History of Bass guitar


Online bass tuning
Strings: Flats or Rounds?
Polishing/cleaning bass
1 Setup a bass
2 Setup a bass


Am I too old to learn to play the bass?
How "good" do you have to be to be in a band?
Guitarist switch to bass


Beginners mistakes
"Go slow" practice method
Creating a practice schedule
Find a teacher

Newbie Learning

Pick/not to Pick?
Pick advice

Developing musically
Metronome info

What's a chord?(w/audio examples)
What are charts?
Tips for writing sheet music
Sight read standard notation(SN)?

Tab website
Tab/not to tab?
Getting off tabs

Newbie Rhythm

1 Learn rhythm
2 Learn rhythm (and more)

Newbie On-line Resources

Dmanlamius' beginner's site
1st bass lesson (click on Beginners)
Intro bass-learn songs,videos
Lessons combined with interactive bass exercises, music quizzes, example songs and bass lines for practice and analysis.
Tab based (w/audio) lessons

Newbie On-line paid lessons

International Institute of Bassists
How to Play Bass.com
Romanze Willoughby

Newbie Theory

What's "Theory"?
Intro to Theory website-easy to follow
Easy understanding of chords
Music Theory for Practical People book
Online Visual Beginning Theory, ear trainer

Reading Music

I need to learn how to read music.
Beginner's Bass Clef tips
"Name that note" online SN game
Downloadable read "bass clef" software
Online bass clef audio/visual trainer
print bass clef flashcards/staff paper


Backing Tracks & Drum Machines

1 Drum Machines
2 Drum Machines
3 Drum Machines
4 Drum tracks with ipod, iphone and other tech add-ons

Free, full-use,downloadable drumtrack software
Drum Tracks
Free backing tracks
Different methods to play drum tracks
Build your own backing tracks online
Build a song, upgrade by subscription

Ear training

Test your ear

Free downloadable ear trainer (basic/advanced) Excellent program
Trainers/tutorials. Music theory, ear training, read music, chords, intervals, etc.
Online Visual Beginning Theory, ear trainer
Discussion of Solfege

Getting creative

Where does creativity come from?
Writing songs
Creating bass lines
Target Approach
Walking bass line examples
Ed Friedland on walking bass lines
TB's Ed Fuqua's walking bass line book
For a jam
Playing scales
Playing behind/ahead of the beat
Playing "in the pocket"

Going "Pro"

Nashville's Roy Vogt's TB thread
Becoming a session player
Going Pro 1
Going Pro 2
The musician's life
Expectations 1
Expectations 2

Books, CDs/DVDs and more

Roy Vogt's Teach Me Bass Guitar DVDs
Ed "the bass whisperer" Friedland
Over 100 DVDs/books
Books, DVDs, all styles/ methods
Looking for the Bass "Bible"
MarlowDK's recommended books
"Best" theory/harmony book
TB Book Links
TB member Jon Liebman's books and more
Books, DVD's, equipment, accessories, etc. (by style)
over 100 books of transcriptions & more
ii-V-I book and CD
Carol Kaye video gives the real deal. Up to 39:12.

Online website lessons

dmanlamius.com Dman's hands on videos and more
playbassnow.com MarlowDK's cool videos & more
Studybass.com Sound files/tab/standard notation based lessons..more
thelibster.com Tech advice,drills, bass sound files & more
cyberfretbass.com Videos & more
activebass.com Lessons, backing tracks, articles and more. Xlnt site

Online Personal Paid Lessons

Ed "the bass whisperer" Friedland


Technique forum

1 How to practice
2 How to practice

Odd time sigs

Help! My wrist/fingers are sore/tingling
Carpal Tunnel
Repairing cuts on your fingers
Cracked Skin-Preventing/Fixing

Singing and Playing bass
Protecting your voice
Bassist's guide to singing

Headphone amps/mixers
1 Good headphones
2 Good Headphones

Tascam GT R1 Portable Stereo Recorder/Mixer/Trainer/Effects/Drum Machine
"Band-in-a Box" software for practicing
"BIAB vs. Tascam Bass Trainer
Bass learning software that uses midi
Playing along with your PC

Sight Reading


http:// www.studybass.com /lessons /reading-music /bass-clef-fretboard-notes /bass-clef-notes-fretboard.pdf
Bass clef to fretboard translation. Memorize this first (copy/paste into browzer then delete spaces).

1 Learning
2 Learning
3 Learning
Recommended books from Berklee bass players

Source Material

1 TB thread: Sight reading source material
2 TB thread: Sight Reading Source Material
3 TB thread: Sight reading source material

Classical sheet music (free,downloadable,thousands)
Transcriptions to practice; many with .mp3 files. Click on Transcriptions


1 Slow down
2 Slow down
3 Slow down
Change pitch/key
BestPractice-PC based, free, easy to use slow downer software
Song Surgeon. Free working demo, paid software, slow downer /pitch shifter/looper/vocal remover/bass isolator/ backing track maker and much more, 31 band eq., also records from any sound source or website. It's the program I use.

Other software
Metronome-odd time sigs.
Victor's metronome lesson
TempRef - hooks to drummer's snare
Free music software
Cheap/good recording software
Cheap computer/recording interface/sound card & software
Guitar Pro

Song Writing

Chord progressions for Songwriters
Chords of Great Songs

Teaching Bass

Teaching ideas 1
Teaching ideas 2
Becoming a teacher
Carol Kay's bass learning/playing advice


Learning basic theory
Intro scale & chord theory
3rds & 7ths?
Tri Tone Substitutions

Theory links list
Theory (from the DB side of TB)
Useful music theory info with audio

Learning modes
Reason for modes
Using modes
Putting it all together (scales/modes)

Key signatures/Circle of 5ths/Cycle of 4ths
Circle/Cycle of 5ths/4ths (spreadsheet format)

Transcribing, Music Notation, Chord Charts, Software, Online

Making software chord charts w/lyrics

1 Suggestions for music notatation software
2 Suggestions for music notation software

Let the computer transcribe your played notes

Note: See also Nashville Number System


So you want to be a music major?
Virginia Tech Music Theory Dictionary
Auditioning for jazz band
Audition dilemma
Classical sheet music (free,downloadable, thousands)




"Blues Bass" by TB member Jon Liebman
Ed Friedland's Essential Styles and Techniques

Chords & Progressions

1 Stumbo's TB Blues jam terms/progressions
2 Blues jam terms/progressions
3 Blues jam terms/progressions
4 Ice Cream Changes
5 Backdoor Progression
6 ii-V-I
7 More blues progressions
8 Evolution of the blues progression
9 Lots of great info from TBr Jive1 and others on the blues here, including some video links


Influential musicians (mostly) pre-1959
History and styles
20 important blues recordings & more

Jams & Gigs
First Jam

1 First jam
2 First jam
3 First jam

Open Jam Etiquette

1 Open Jam Etiquette
2 Open Jam Etiquette
3 Open Jam Etiquette

Gig Coming Up

Gig coming up
Things to do before a gig
"Sitting In" Etiquette


Becoming a blues bass player
Blues progressions explained w/ audio samples
backing tracks
Getting into the blues
Slow blues
Blues bass player's club


"Must know" blues tunes 1
"Must know" blues tunes 2



Learning/playing country bass

Nashville Number System


NNS Chart example
4 part intro
1 page intro

TB Threads



Explanation with examples and quick reference chart$

Books (w/CD)


Books (no CD)



Videos with charts/music. Some with follow-along bouncing ball


MAC/Windows Font


Learning chord changes
Examples of songs
Gospel/PW basses/rigs/strings

Praise & Worship

Learned in church


1 Hip-Hop bass
2 Hip-Hop bass
3 Hip-Hop bass
4 Hip-Hop Bass

Hip-hop bands with instruments


TalkBass Jazz Forum
On-line lessons
Learning 1
Learning 2
Theory, soloing, videos by Ethans1980 website

Walking bass lines examples
Walking bass lines books
Jazz Scales

Fake book-which one?
Improvization Primer (Book/Online)

History of Jazz website
Top 50 Female Jazz Vocalists


Learning Latin music
"The Latin Bass Book" by Oscar Stagnaro/Chuck Sher
Afro-Cuban bass/drums grooves book


Best bass for metal?
Play Metal bass
Demystifying metal styles
Tuning your bass for metal
How to scream/growl
Drop Tuning - which strings?


1 Reggae bass
2 Reggae bass

1 Best bass/setup for Reggae
2 Best bass/setup for Reggae

Reggae broken down



F. R. Prestia/Tower of Power
Anthony Vitti
Alex Sklarevski
Bill Dickens
Tony Oppenheim
Larry Graham
TBr Jon Liebman
Joaquin des Pres
Funk Masters w/James Brown Rhythm Section Book
Funk Bass Bible


Links to over 20 funk,groove and R&B bassists


TB's Funk 101 list of funk tunes
Funk 102
TB's Old School Funk tunes suggestions
R&B set list tunes
50 songs to learn R&B on
Jamerson's discography

Funk show, recordings
Who played bass with Aretha Franklin?
The late, great, James Jamerson
Jamerson w/Marvin on Youtube: isolated voice and bass
Jamerson w/Gladys Night on YT: isolated voice and bass


Over 60 slap/funk lessons by MarlowDK
Video lessons w/Dmanlamius

Playing behind/ahead of the beat

Getting an upright bass tone/thump

1 Get that dead flatwound string sound
2 Get that dead flatwound string sound
Upright thump/hollow sound
"Woodsie" tone

Getting Creative

Funk rock
Neo-Soul (1990's)
New funk groups March 2009
New funk groups Jan. 2014
Modern Funk bassists


TB slap bass references/links
TB slap bass stickie
Best slap player?


TB Synth bass thread
Getting a "synth" bass tone/sound

By Decade


Essential 60's songs


Top Ten Songs for each year
Top 100 disco songs


Cool 80's songs


90's Funk


80's,90's, 00's



New band
3 piece band
Advertising for new member(s)


1 For a new band
2 For a new band
Getting back in the game
Red flag stories
Hilarious/Bizarre audition stories
"Never got to audition"
Audition didn't go as planned


First band?
How "good" do you have to be?
Finding a new band
Questions to ask before joining


Wearing ear plugs
Band rehearsal/headphones

Learning band set list
Learning songs quickly
Rehearsal tips
How often?

Sound Proofing Terms and Tips
1 Sound proofing/reduction
2-w/ room pics
3-w/ room pics
Build Recording Studio book- for pros/DIYr's

Replacing a band member

Firing band member
1 Auditioning new member
2 Auditioning new member


Giving notice
Getting fired
Quitting music?

Cover/Tribute/Originals Band

Cover band
Covers vs. Originals
Tribute band
Picking songs for setlist
1 Cover band set lists
2 Cover band set lists

Band Names

Real band names
Infamous band names
Changing band name
1 Funk Band Name Thread
2 Funk Band Name Thread
Help me change my band name!


Bandnamemaker.com generates band names with the option of including words you want in the name
Generates two and three word band names automatically.


Book - "Bandalism"

On-line Tools
Keeping track of gigs/rehearsals
Band website setup alternatives

Practical Advice
How to handle a big band
Playing in a band w/o rehearsing
"Leading" a band
Band "funds"?
Why many bands fail

Playing for free
Originals Band "paying dues" playing for free
Is playing for "free" really "free"?

When your significant other is a non-musician...


Advertising your band
How to call Attention to your music - Derek Sivers PDF
Business cards
Getting gigs
Art of closing the deal


DAW favorites 8-26-2013

Youtube copyright issues with cover videos

Recording for Youtube

Info on how to license songs for a cover recording project/release.



First Gig

Adjusting your tone for the mix: practice/rehearsal vs. live.
1 First Gig
2 First Gig
3 First Gig

Gig Pay

Gig pay issues and considerations


Making the best of a 4 hour gig
How early to show up?
Overcoming gig anxiety
What to do if you don't know a song or forget your part

Touring advice
Still gigging after all of these years
Using backing/sequenced tracks at a gig
Solving the "sweaty hands" problem

Stage Management

Cables and Wireless

Cables, Coiling
Cables: Managing on stage
Cables, Taping down

Going wireless
In-ear monitors
Cables/Wireless discussion

Emergency supplies

What's in your gig bag?

Moving Equipment

Best dolly for moving equipment - Remin Super 600!
1 Moving equipment
2 Moving equipment
3 Moving equipment

On Stage

Solving the "sweaty hands" problem
4 hour gigs
1 Banter between songs
2 Banter between songs

Hand Signals: directing the band

In the mix: Getting your sound "live"
In the mix: Managing your sound
Sub-woofer placement matters!
PA tops-placement matters.

Music stands?
Music reader apps & hardware
DIY monitors
Personal monitors
Digital music "stand"
iPad/etc. for chord charts

Noodle/not to noodle?
Volume Control
Volume: Being asked to turn down


First PA
1 What size?
2 What size

Sub-woofer placement matters!
PA tops-placement matters.

1 Upgrading
2 Upgrading

1 What mixer is your band runnin'?
2 What mixer is your band runnin'?

Frequency charts to assist with adjusting eq.
EQ Terms (shelving,Q, parametric, semi-parametric and more)

QSC K series PA amp discussion

Low cost lighting


Working with the "sound guy"
Cheap vs. Expensive DI
Sub-Woofer Placement Matters!
PA tops-placement matters!


Stumbo's TB bass tech referral thread


Amp Tech Referrals

Good amp techs


Amp/Cab/Bass Insurance

Amp FAQs
Pros/Cons of Amp Design
Watts: How many do you gig with?(poll)
Watts: Amp "watts" vs. cab "watts"
Why use big amps?

1 2 ohm capable heads
2 2 ohm capable heads
"I want a monster amp!"
Powerful,reliable rack amps
200 watt + tube bass heads

Light Weight Heads

Stumbo's >30 light-weight heads, cabs & combos
Light weight heads
Micro-amp tone reviews


1 Buying a combo
2 Buying a combo
Opinions/experiences-great small combo amps
The ultimate custom built combo?
Combos vs Head/Cab
Pre-amp/Power Amp vs Head/Cab or Combo<br /

Gig Rigs

1 Happy with my rig
2 Happy with my rig

1 Gig Rigs
2 Gig Rigs

Nano-rigs of Doom
Micro-rigs of Doom
Mini-rigs of Doom
Rigs of Doom
Cheap Rigs of Doom

Boutique Cabs

Audiokinesis thread
Baer cabs/heads
Barefaced cab club
Big E cabs
Bill Fitzmaurice (BFM) cabs/builders
Crazy 88 cabs
Glasstone cabs club
Greenboy fEARful/fEARless cabs/builders
LoPhat cabs
Xsonics cab club


Benefits of vertical speaker cabs
Comb Filtering Thread and cab placement

1 10s v. 12s v. 15s v. 18s
2 10s v. 12s v. 15s v. 18s

1 4x10 vs. 2x10/1x15
2 4x10 vs. 2x10/1x15

1x10's that do the job
1x15/6.5 custom cab

Full range cab (Carvin LS1503)
Big cabs
Low B reproduction/speakers/cab thread
Rig for low F#

Custom built cabs

Low Down Sound(LDS) custom cab club V3



Ampeg Portaflex Wiki
Jess Oliver's Legacy Ampeg Portaflex Club


Sunn 2000s



Cables: Instrument/Speaker Differences

1 Cables, Instrument
2 Cables, Instrument
3 Cables, Instrument
4 Cables, High end vs. low end
5 TBr Bongomania's Buyers Guide to Cables (with test results).


Compression benefits
Compressor FAQ's and reviews


Pedals that add rhythm guitar type sound

Rumble/Sub-Sonic/High-Pass Filters

1 Rumble/Sub-Sonic/High-Pass Filter Benefits
2 Rumble/Sub-Sonic/High-Pass Filter Benefits
3 TBr fdeck's v.III HPF/pre-amp
4 Sfx MicroThumpinator


Bass guitar stands
Examples of DIY speaker cab stands and why they don't affect your sound like you think they do.


1 Straps, Comfortable
2 Straps, Comfortable
3 Straps, Comfortable
4 Straps that redistribute weight
5 Straps that redistribute weight
6 Straps that redistribute weight

DIY MAINTAINING-REPAIRING-BUILDING-MODDING-PAINTING-SHIPPING ∙·····························Amps/Basses/Cabs/Cables···································

TB's amp/bass technicians referral threads

TB's amplifier tech referral thread; tube and/or solid state
Stumbo's TB bass tech referral thread


The art of soldering
Soldering tips and tricks
Soldering to pots
Soldering to the bridge
Copper shielding
Alternative to soldering


Tube Amps

Building tube amp
Learning to fix tube amps
Sunn 2000s amp
How to turn on/off a tube amp
Tube vs. Solid State and Cab Ohms

Work Bench

What on your workbench?

Basses: Fender clones; having one built for you

TB and other well known luthiers


Bass Setup and Repair
Fret board "oiling"

Fix stripped neck/strap lock holes
Custom bass pickups/pots

1 Simple Vari-Tone control
2 Simple Vari-tone control

Refinishing your bass
Rattle can refinishing club
Refinishing paint/info/discussion board
Swirl Finishes

Copper Shielding

Casting your own parts
Foam rubber string mutes


Find Jazz Bass/P Bass replacement pickups.
TB Pickups FAQ
Bill Lawrence "Wilde" pickups - Jazz/P


Stumbo's TB thread on the "New Era for DIY cab builders and cab replacement speaker choices
Bill Fitzmaurice (BFM) DIY cabs
Greenboy fEARful DIY cabs/plans
"Zaclite" DIY 2x10 Fiberglass cab build
Investigating building a cab around some speakers (10s, 12s)
1x12 Fiberglass build
Fiberglass 600w 12/6/1

Stumbo's TB DIY/Upgrade Cab Plans/Info Club

Sourcing cab parts-bolts,washers,spacers,etc.
Cab coatings explained
Cross-overs made to order
1 Insulating your cab
2 Insulating your cab

Speakers/Speaker Cables

1 Making speaker cables
2 Making speaker cables

Instrument/patch cable making

Speaker reconer recommendations

1 Upgrading/changing speakers
2 Upgrading/changing speakers
3 Upgrading/changing speakers
4 Upgrading/changing speakers
5 Upgrading speakers, adding a second port to a cab


1 Packing a bass
2 Shipping a bass
3 Shipping/packing a bass
4 Shipping/packing basses/amps
Shipping heavy tube amps

1 Best way to ship 98lb 4x10 cab
2 Best way to ship large 2x15 cab
3 Best way to ship large cabs
4 Best way to ship large cabs
5 Best way to ship large cabs
6 Cheapest way to ship large cabs

1 Finding boxes for shipping amps/cabs
2 Finding boxes for shipping amps/cabs
3 Photos of shipping box/cab protection

Problems with shipping cabs



Stumbo's TB Guitar Thread
Fingerstyle guitar

1 Best guitar forums
2 Best guitar forums

Visual guitar automatic chord finder website
Jazz guitar/chords/solos


Buying/learning harmonica
Types of harmonicas
Modern Blues Harmonica-a wealth of resources


Buying/learning/playing keyboards


Life's Tips 'n Tricks

Flashlights discussion
Free software/utilities
Improving your sleep
Instructions on everything
Lose weight
Save $
Tips for living

TB Slang, Abbreviations, Conventions and Definitions

TB's Facebook site.
TB's home page. Now is a good time to visit if you haven't seen it before.
8x10, 2x12, 1x15: For speaker cabinets, the quantity/size of speakers mounted in a cabinet.
15/6/1, 15/6, 12/6, 151566: For speaker cabinets containing speakers of different sizes.
'66: Short for a 1515/66 cab. See fEARful
$$: Warwick Double Humbucker
[OT] A polite way to mark up a comment to indicate that you know you're making an Off Topic post in a thread so you don't get flamed. [/OT]
+1 (or any number): Agreed. More numbers = you HIGHLY agree.
A/B: When you compare two instruments/cabs/amps etc. by playing/listening to them one after the other.
ABG: Acoustic Bass Guitar
Active, Active Bass: A tone control circuit(pre-amp-treble,mid,bass) that is powered by one or two 9 volt batteries. The more voltage, the more boost.
AFAICS: As Far As I Can See
AFAIK: As Far As I Know
AFAICT: As far as I can tell
Amp: Amplifier. Increases the pre-amplifier signal so we can hear it.
Amp Modeling: See DSP.
Ampage: amplifier(s),e.g., "But I agree... for small rooms, regular ampage with only vocals through the PA should be sufficient."
Analogue, Analog:A representation of an object that resembles the original. Analog devices monitor conditions, such as movement, temperature and sound, and convert them into analogous electronic or mechanical patterns. For example, an analog watch represents the planet's rotation with the rotating hands on the watch face. Telephones turn voice vibrations into electrical vibrations of the same shape. Analog implies a continuous signal in contrast with digital, which breaks everything into numbers.
All original: As in an "all original '63 Fender Jazz Bass".
ATOZ (A to Z): Icon designed from TBr ATOZ'. Also, his photograph has been photochopped many a time in the TB Photochop thread.
Attenuator: See Power Brake
AUB: Acoustic Upright Bass
Avatar: For TB donors/supporting (paid) users, the ability to place a picture next to one's user name.
AYFKM: Are you freakin' kidding me?
B&B: Bass neck is blocked(instead of fret dots) & bound (trim around neck edges).
Backline: Amps and other equipment being used for a gig provided by the venue. Used a lot in rental situations...Backline provided.
Bacon: You know... bacon.
Ban, Banned (Temp/Permanent): What happens to TBer's who are unable to control what comes out of their keyboard on to their screen and into their TB posts AND, who are unable/unwilling to change despite warnings from TB mods.
BardsTale: TBr, made this up, he loved the old game and loves TBr Bard2theBone's stories
Bassface: A particularly funny/odd facial expression associated with a person feelin' it while playing.
Basss Shaped Object: See BSO
BB: the late Bob Babbitt, replaced James Jamerson in the Motown studio musician's group, The Wrecking Crew. All-time great.
b/c: because
BFM: Bill Fitzmaurice - audio and speaker cab guru. Has his own DIY (also authorized builders) speaker cab website
'bic: Alembic
Bill Lawrence aka Willi Stich (RIP): Master guitarist and pickup invention/designer/builder of Wilde pickups for bass and guitar.
BL: Band Leader
Blocks, Blocked: Rectangular inlays in fretboard at 3rd, 5th etc. frets instead of dots
BOH: Back of House: (to go along with FOH] Back line, monitors, etc...anything heard on stage.
Boner Bass: Basses with an extra long top horn.
Bound: Fretboard edges inlaid with material of contrasting color/material
Boutique Bass Cabs(Cabinets): Low production, cutting-edge cabinets. See Boutique Cabs
BSO: Bass-Shaped Object, a poorly-made 'bass-shaped object'. Heard more in DB(double bass)forums
Bump, Bumped or Bumping: When you post in your own thread or another TBr's thread to move it to the top of the thread list. See also TTT
CAR: Candy Apple Red color of paint.
Cab(s): Speaker cabinet(s)
Cabbage: Speaker cab(s). "I happy with my current cabbage."
Carrots: in a thread poll, a choice provided by the pollster for TBrs who want to vote but don't care about the poll question or outcome.
CAS: Chicks At Shows. There's an,ongoing TB pic thread on the topic.
Chambered: Slots cut into a bass body to reduce weight and/or to create a hollow bodyDB type tone.
CIJ: "Crafted In Japan" Usually when the manufacture did more than assemble.
Click Track: Recording and sometimes live playing technique(mostly for drummers) where a metronome click is provided on a separate track through headphones so that everyone has the same timing.
Closed back speaker cabinet: See Sealed/Unsealed
Closet Classic: Bass that has little signs of aging, as if stored in a closet for many years.
Coffee Table: Instrument with highly figured top where the grain is visible.
Comb Filtering: Distortion (phase cancellation of mids/highs) that occurs when speaker/speaker cabs are placed on a horizontal axis (side by side). Corrected by vertically stacking speakers/cabs. Mitigated somewhat by placing speakers in a cab at angles from each other. See related thread -->here.
Combo: Combination; usually referring to amp and speaker built into one cabinet.
Compression: an electronic unit that smooths the peaks of the bass signal to even out the sound and to protect the amp/speakers.
Conversations Replaced Private Messages(PM's) when TB software was upgraded.
CUP: Commercial User Policy. Policies set up to regulate the usage of TB by businesses.
DB: Double (upright) Bass(as played by Jazz, Rock-a-billy and other musicians.)
DB Forum: TB's double bass/eub/upright bass forum.
DC: Double Cut Body Style (two horns).
DD: The late Donald "Duck" Dunn, R&B bassist, an all-time great
DI, DI Box, Direct Box: Small unit to plug bass into that splits signal for sending clean bass to PA mixer and another signal to the amp. Many amps have them built in with a switch (Pre/Post) to send either a clean, unfiltered bass tone(Pre)to the PA or EQ'd tone(Post)
Dinger: Dingwall Bass
Digital:Records or diplays everything (sound, light, temperature, etc.) in numbers.
Digital Modeling: See DSP.
Dots: Fretboard Markings
DSP: Digital Sound Processing. Using software to manipulate the output signal to emulate different amp tones, speaker cab tones, guitar/bass tones and create special effects. Also applied to home theater audio systems. Manufacturers/Builders usually come up with their own trademarked name for DSP.
Emo: Emotional (as in, Don't get all emo over this!)
EB: Electric Bass Guitar. Term usually seen on the DB forum side of TB.
e.g.: for example
EQ, Equalizer(analog or digital): Multi-Band frequency tone controls the allow adjustment to specific frequencies. Can be built into an amp, pedal, rack unit, stand alone unit or be software based.
ERB: Extended Range Bass
EUB,EURB: Electric Upright Bass
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions. Please read the TB list.
Fassa: Legendary newbie TBr.
FCOL: for cryin' out loud
fdeck: TBr/Designer of a popular adjustable high-pass-filter(HPF)/pre-amp used to cut out undesirable low freq. noise below 35hz. Tightens up your low end and protects speakers. Version 3 (V3) is adjustable up to 140hz to cut boominess due to venue acoustics
fEARful: DIY speaker cabs designed by TBr Greenboy
fEARless: Cabs designed by TBr Greenboy
Feeler: Used mainly on the "for sale" forums. Meaning "I'll sell if I get what I believe is top dollar."
Fenderbird: A bass made from parts of a Gibson(or copy)Thunderbird & a Fender. Typically a T-Bird body, Fender neck and any kind of electronics. The late John Entwistle had several made.
Fingerboard: Fret Board WITHOUT Frets (Fretless)
FL: Fretless
Flame: A highly configured and visible wood pattern, usually associated with the top of a bass.
Flame: To unleash copious amounts of vitriol on a fellow TBr. Note: can get you banned.
FMIC: Fender Musical Instruments Corporation
FOH: Front Of House (as in, in front of the PA).See BOH.
Fools on Stools: Usually reserved for old guy duos playing acoustic instruments (or with an electric bass) while sitting on stools playing rock tunes of suspicious origin and with dubious talent.
Frankenbass, Frankenstein bass: A bass made of various, sometimes rarely-used-together parts
Freq/Freqs: Frequency/Frequencies
Fretboard: Neck board with frets (Fretted)
Fridge: Ampeg 8x10 cab
FSO: For Sale Only or Fender Shaped Object (to describe a Fender bass clone or something near it).
FSR: Factory Special Run
FTW: For the win. When a post captures the essence of a thread.
Fugly: Beyond ugly ... ******* + Ugly
Fundamental: Root frequency of a note. Fundamental of the B string on a 5 string bass is 32hz hertz. See Harmonics.
FUQUA'd" Having DBr Ed Fuqua bastardize your TB handle.
FWIW: For What It's Worth.
GAS,G.A.S.: Gear Acquisition Syndrome.
GAT: Get a teacher
GC: Guitar Center. A chain of music stores owned by Bain Capital. Also owns Woodwind and Brasswind, Music 123, Lyons Music, Musician's Friend and others
Get the hell off my lawn: Uused by old guys when newbies, et.al. make us cranky.
Git Player: Guitar Player
Gitard: Derogatory term for guitar players. Frowned upon on TB except when applicable.
GIF: picture file process and format that allows minimal animation in a very small file size with usually humorous content and effect. Used in many avatars.
GK: Gallien Krueger amp/speaker cab manufacturer.
GL: Can Refer to "Geddy Lee" (ie. The model) or G&L basses.
GLWTS: "Good luck the the sale" or "Good luck with the show".
Greenboy: designer of fEARful and other light weight cabs.
GTG: Get Together.
Gtr: Guitar
Guitard: Derogatory term for guitar players. Frowned upon on TB except when applicable. In retalition, guitards sometimes refer to us as "basstards"
Hannie: Hanewinckle
Harmonics (2nd order, 3rd order, etc.): frequencies produced above the root (fundamental) frequency of a note that creates the musical timbre of a steady tone from an instrument and is determined by the relative strengths of each harmonic. See Fundamental
Head: Pre-amp, Amp and Speaker(s) built in one cab.
Hertz: See Hz.
HH: Double Humbucker Pickup Combo
Hissy Quit: See Rage Quit
High Pass Filter (HPF,Rumble Filter/Subsonic Filter/Low Cut Filter): filter built to eliminate low frequencies below a specific frequency to eliminate inaudible low bass frequencies that suck amplifier power and can damage/blow speakers. Some amps have it built in. See TBr fdeck's adjustable HPF V3. Also check out the Thumpinator or Fishman Pro Platinum. See Micro Screaminator for low pass (treble cut off) filter box.
Hoffman's Iron Law: There's a tradeoff relationship between box size, bass extension, and efficiency. If you want to make improvements in one area, payment for that must come from the others. So if you want a small box that goes deep, it will have low efficiency (classic example is the one cubic foot home stereo subwoofer that goes down to 20 Hz but needs a kilowatt of power).
Hoffy: Hofner Bass, like the one Paul McCartney uses.
HPF See High Pass Filter HTH: Hope That Helps.
Hybrid: Usually an amp that has a tube preamp and Solid State(SS)amp.
Hz: A Measurement Of Cycles Per Second related to a specific frequency,e.g., "32 Hz"
IBTL: Before The Thread Lock (Frowned upon by TB mods). Making a post before it's locked due to issues in a thread.
i.e.: that is
IDC: I don't care, I didn't care.
IDK: I don't know, I didn't know.
IEM: In ear monitors. System used to replace on stage floor monitors.
iOS: (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system developed/distributed by Apple Inc. Also for iPad, iPod Touch. TB club.
IIRC: If I Remember Correctly
IME: In my experience
IMHO: In My Humble Opinion or In My Honest Opinion
IMO: In my opinion.
Jazz: Fender Jazz Bass or basses built in the style of.
J/H: Jazz (single coil)/Humbucker (double coil) Pickup Combination
J/P/J: Bass built with 3 pickups in the format of: Jazz, Precision, Jazz. Usually with a Fender Jazz Bass style bass.
J,J-Bass,JBass: Fender Jazz Bass or basses built in the style of.
JMHO: Just My (Humble, Honest) Opinion
JJ: The late James Jamerson, Motown bassist, arguably the greatest bass player ever
LGD: Lead Guitarist's Disease.
LILO: Load in/Load out
Lounge, The: Private Forum accessible to TB supporting members.
Low Cut Filter: See High Pass Filter
Lownered: To start a thread or post once ( usually a trollish type post ) and leave a thread forever.
LP or LPB: Les Paul or Les Paul Bass (Referring to the body style) or Lake Placid Blue (A colour)
LSD: Lead Singer's Disease
Macca: Paul McCartney
Mad: Lots of something: Mad skills, mad props.
Maximum excursion: The amount of speaker movement that takes the coil out of the magnetic gap, making reconing a distinct possibility. See Xmax.
MHDW: (TBr)Maki has done worse
Metronome: Unit that provides an adjustable tempo (speed) click to assist a bass player while practicing or a band while rehearsing. Sometimes used to describe a drummer's time keeping ability-"like a metronome".
MIA: "Made in Asia" or "Missing in Action" or Made in America
MIC: "Made in China"
Mic/Mic'd or Mike/Miked: Microphone
Micro Thumpinator: See High Pass Filter.
Micro Screaminator: Low pass filter that cuts highs (clankyness) above 5Khz. Also good for guitar also.
Mids: Frequencies generally between ____ Hz and ____ Hz.
Mid-Forward: Bass cab that emphasizes mid-range.
MIJ: "Made In Japan" See Also, CIJ.
MIK: "Made In Korea"
MIM: "Made In Mexico"
MM or EBMM: Music Man or Ernie Ball Music Man. MM can also refer to the Marcus Miller signature bass
Mod(s): Moderator(s): Talk Bass overseers. They can shut you up.
Mod(s): Modify, as in Mod a bassor What mods does your bass have?
Mojo: Extensive wear on a bass due to years of playing. Such basses seem to have a deep history or charisma.
Mosh Girl: Photochop thread based on a photo of a girl dancing in mosh pit. Mosh Girl Photoshop Thread
Mothman: bass of legend, forged in the depths of hell
My Inspired Pose: Photochop thread based on TBr Oniman's picture: My inspired pose
NAD: New amp day
N'Ampeg: Ampegs of overseas Asian manufacture
NBD: New Bass Day
NBD: No big deal
NCD: New (speaker) cabinet day
NIMBY: Not in my backyard.
No pic, no hot chick: Calling out a fellow TBr to provide pics of the "hot chick" he/she referenced in a previous post.
No pic, no _____: Used when you want a TBr to provide pics of whatever has been referenced in a previous post.
Noob/Newbie/Newb: New Member. New to a topic/subject.
NOS: New Old Stock. Applies to any object that was originally made many years ago, has remained unsold and is still in new condition for sale.
NTTAWWT: Not that there's anything wrong with that
NWS, NSFW: Warning about a photograph or video. Not work safe or Not safe for work to display on your screen. Something you should never see on TB and something you should never post on TB. See Banned.
OP: Original Poster/Original Post. "The OP has a point."
Open back speaker cabinet: For guitar, allowing part of the back to be uncovered, creating a desired and different tone than sealed back cabinets. Placed close to a wall, part of the sound will be widely reflected back into the room.
Original: As in An original, '63 Fender Jazz Bass.
OT: Off Topic forum or "off topic". "Your post is off topic".
OTOH: On The Other Hand
P, P-Bass, P Bass, PBass: Fender Precision Bass or basses built in the style.
PA or P.A.: Public Address system used to amplify vocals and various musical instruments that a band uses.
Passive, Passive Bass: A bass that depends on the voltage from the pickups to power a preamp/amp. No batteries. A non-active bass. See Active.
Paul Determan: Forum administrator/owner of TB. Contact with any issues the mods can't handle or to file website complaints.
P-Bass: Fender Precision Bass or those built in the style.
PBDDI: Tech 21 Programmable Bass Driver DI
PDDI: Tech 21 Para Driver DI
P/G,PG: Pickguard
P/H,PH: Precision/Humbucker Pickup Combination
P/J,PJ: Precision/Jazz pickup combination. Usually installed on a Fender Jazz Bass,sometimes a Fender Precision Bass along with a Jazz Bass neck. Precision p/u in the neck position, Jazz p/up in bridge position.
Pre-amp: Pre-amplifier. Takes powered signals(electrical impulses) from a source(usually a bass on TB), modifies it with filters(tone controls)and sends the modified signal to an amplifier making the bass and "active bass". Can be purchased as an individual unit or in conjunction with an amplifier(head)
Photochop, Photochopped: modifying a photo, usually in a humorous way. Photo modified using the program Photoshop.
Pic(s),Pix: Picture(s)
Pillow: Bass tone that emphasizes the lower frequencies but is not distorted but more smooth/rounded tone.
PITA, Pita: pain in the a$$
Plank: DBer's(upright bass player) derisive term for electric bass guitar
Plank Spanker: Those who play electric bass guitar
PM: Private Message sent through TalkBass from one TBr to another.
Port, Ported: Usually a round hole cut into a speaker cabinet with a specific length(determined by calculation) of plastic pipe extension attached. To maximize bass response.
POS: Piece of $**+. Not a good piece of equipment.
Potentiometer: Volume control, etc.
Power or speaker(Brake, Attenuator, Soak) or (Amplifier, Volume, Power, Wattage) Attenuator: A very effective and adjustable unit that is inserted between amplifier and speaker cab that absorbs amp power (little to a lot) so a musician can get power tube distortion at a low volume by turning up the amp volume and where the (Brake, Attenuator, Soak) absorbs the amp power. Usually for guitarists using tube amps and can shorten tube life considerably. If you are looking for speaker distortion, this is not the effect to use.
Precision: based on Fender Precision Bass.
Pron: Porn
Props: Proper respect. That bass player deserves mad props for really putting on a show tonight!
PUP(s), p/u's: Pickup(s)
Pwn, Pwned: from the verb own, owned, as in, I pwned you. Gloating or bragging about some accomplishment that overshadows someone else's. Also, to appropriate or to conquer, compromise or control.
QFT: Quoted for Truth. A very strong agreement with another TBr's statement/reply.
OT: TB Off Topic Forum where pretty much any non-music subject (except politics and/or religion) are discussed, disputed and generally chewed on pretty good by lots of TBrs.
Rack, Rack Mount(ed): amps, pre-amps, etc. designed (with ears/tabs) to be semi-permanently mounted into a (usually) metal box (rack). Many racks are modified to hold pretty much any thing that will fit in them.
Rage Quit: Posting a tantrum thread and then quitting TB. Possibly deleting one's account in the process.
Ramp: Small piece of rectangular wood placed to fill space between pickups and usually used to rest your thumb while playing.
Rattle Can Refin: Refinishing a bass with paint out of a spray can(rattles when shaken).
RB5: Roscoe Beck 5-string
Relic, Light Relic a bass: Nicks, scratches. etc. added to a bass to make it look like you've been gigging /playing it for 30 years. Light relic, only about 5 years.
Respect: Number one rule on TB: Respect your fellow TBr's at all times when posting.
RI: Reissue
Ric: Rickenbacker Basses
Round port: a circular hole cut into a speaker cabinet along with using an internal extension(usually plastic pipe) of a specific length for tuning the cabinet to obtain maximum performance from the speaker. See Shelf Port. See Sealed/Nonsealed Cabinets.
Rumble Filter: See High Pass Filter
SABDDI: Tech 21 SansAmp Bass Driver DI.
SC: Single Cut Body Style.
SE: Sound Engineer who runs the P.A. and stage monitors. Sometime two individuals, one for the PA and one for the stage monitors.
Scale Length: The length from the nut of the bass, to the bridge of the bass.
Search is your friend: A polite way to inform a thread creator or poster that what is being asked about has been widely and thoroughly discussed before and to use the Search function to obtain answers to their question.
Sealed(closed) speaker cabinet/non-sealed(ported) speaker cabinet: Sealed cabinets have no other opening except for the speaker(s). Non-sealed cabinets have openings (shelf, round, horn) that tune a speaker cabinet to match the speaker(s) parameters resulting in obtaining maximum performance from the speaker(s) See Round port, Shelf port.
Shedd, shedding, shedded See Woodshed.
Shelf port: Alternative to a round port. Usually built as a specific full-length or full-width opening of a speaker cabinet to maximize speaker capabilities. Can also be built into both sides of a speaker cabinet. See Sealed/nonsealed cab.
Shoegaze, Shoegazer, Shoegazi: (UK) A type of Britpop or other indie music of the 1990s, characterised by a dreamlike sound making much use of effect pedals, and by a detached or introverted performance style or music similar.
Sig: Signature. TB's signature display area seen at the bottom of posts or in a user's profile.
Siggable: A phrase or comment worth putting into the TB signature display space.
Sigged: Putting another TBr' phrase into your TB signature display space.
Signature: Display under a post where a TB can input any type of information or links
Single Cut: Bass with only one cut away.
Sitch: Situation
Slab: DBer's derisive term for bass guitar
Slab Bass Bass w/o comfort shaping, like the original Fender Precision Basses.
Slab: Rosewood fingerboard with a flat bottom on a neck with comparable mating surface.
SLM era CL+SLM era 810e: SLM was previous owner of Ampeg. CL=amp, 810e=speaker cab
SM57: An Industry Standard Microphone made by the Sure company. Mostly used to mic instruments.
SM58: An industry standard vocal microphone made by the Sure company.
SMDH: Shaking My D@mn Head
Sound guy: see SE
Spec(s): Specifications
Squire: Officially spelled "Squier", a budget brand of FMIC(Fender Musical Instrument Corporation)
SR5: Ernie Ball Stingray 5-string
SS: Solid state (transistor, not tube circuit)
Stammie: Stambaugh bass
Sticky: Thread that rises to such popularity or contains highly useful information that is placed permanently at the top of the forum it originated in for TBr's easy access.
String Tension: How much force a string exerts when tuned. See TB discussion here.
Subsonic Filter: See High Pass Filter.
Supporting Member: $20/yr., $60/yr.-GOLD supporting member. Larger message storage and avatar pics + other benefits.
SX Basses: Essex Basses
TB: TalkBass
T-Bass, TBass: Fender Telecaster Bass or those built in the style
TBBFM: The Best Bass For Metal
TG: TalkGuitar.com, TB's sister site.
The Best Bass for Metal: Humorous reply to a thread/post taken from a thread the asked "What's the best bass for Metal?"
The Best Bass For ________: Humorous reply to a thread/post that asks about "The best", "The most" or any other overused superlative.
The Qintar: An old poster on Talkbass.
Thump: bass tone that has more mid-range and gives you a thumping type tone instead of a smoother tone. A P bass is good for this.
TI: Thomastik-Infeld strings, e.g.. TI Flats
TL;DR: Too long, Don't Read. Too long, Didn't Read. Summary of long post, usually seen at the beginning of the post.
Tort: Tortoise Shell (pickguard)
Tribbie: G&L Tribute basses
Troll: A person who posts for the sole purpose of stirring the pot.
TTIUWOP or TTIUWP: This Thread Is Useless Without Pics
TTT: "To The Top", alternative to Bump. Typed in a post to get a thread moved to the top of the thread list.
Tug Bar: Small piece of rectangular wood/plastic placed on front of bass above or below pickups to rest thumb/fingers. Older Fender Precision or Jazz basses are good examples.
Unmolested: Stock, unmodified, unchanged, as first sold, original setup
URB or UB: Upright Bass
Vintage: Previously used to describe old basses until incorporated into the names of new basses made in the style of old basses.
Vox: Vocals
VTC: Vintage Tone Control
'wick: Warwick bass
WinISD: Free speaker cabinet design program available in the Interwebz.
Wish Bass: Bass-shaped object made by Steve Wishnevsky- rumored to be capable of making bass like sounds
Woodshed, Woodshedding, Woodshedded: Spending a large amount of time practicing with the goal of getting as good as you can in a short amount of time, as if you are isolating yourself in a woodshed so no one will bother you. See Shed.
WRT,W.R.T.: With respect to. Making a comment "WRT" a specific point made earlier in a conversation".
WTL;DR: Way too long, Didn't read. See TL;DR.
Wunkay: G&L L-100 bass
WWMD: What Would (TBr) Maki Do?
Xmax: How far the speaker cone can travel(one way) with the coil still in the magnetic gap. Farther is better. Not related to maximum excursion which takes the coil out of the magnetic gap.
YMMV: Your Mileage May Vary. Advising a reader that taking your advice is at his/her own risk.

Audio Terms

3-to-1 Rule: When using multiple microphones, the distance between microphones should be at least 3 times the distance from each microphone to its intended sound source. For example, if a grand piano microphone is one foot away from the strings, a second piano microphone should be at separated from the first microphone by at least 3 feet.
5.1 Surround sound home theater audio/speaker arrangement. 6 audio channels: 1 subwoofer), 2 speakers to the left and right of television, 1 center (middle) speaker(usually for for voices placed in between front speakers) and 2 rear speakers. Some recent speaker innovations use DSP(digital sound processing) to achieve 5.1 with all front/center/rear speakers contained in a long, narrow speaker box placed under the television and one subwoofer placed nearby.
7.1: Surround sound home theater audio/speaker arrangement. 8 audio channels: one subwoofer (.1), 2 front speakers to the left and right of television, 1 center (middle) speaker(usually for for voices placed in between front speakers), 2 mid-rear speakers and 2 rear speakers.
Absorption: The weakening of radio wave strength by losses in various materials.
ADC: Analog-to-digital converter, also abbreviated A/D.
Ambience: Room acoustics or natural reverberation.
Ambient Sound Local or background sounds.
Amplitude: Magnitude of strength of signal or wave.
AM Rejection: Ability of an FM receiver to reject signals from AM transmitters and/or AM noise from electrical devices or natural sources.
Antenna: Electrical circuit element that transmits or receives radio waves.
Antenna Gain: Measure of antenna efficiency compared to a reference antenna, for example: dBi = gain relative to theoretical isotropic (spherical omnidirectional) antenna.
Antenna Splitter: A device for electrically matching a single antenna to multiple receivers.
Attenuation – Measure of the loss of amplitude of a signal.
Automatic Mixer: A specialized mixer that turns off unused microphone channels without any user intervention, and turns on microphone channels as needed.
Auxiliary (Aux) Send: An extra output from a mixer channel with separate level control. Usually used to create monitor mixes or as effects sends.
Bandwidth: A measure of the frequency range of a signal or device.
Base Frequency: The actual frequency of a crystal oscillator, usually then multiplied to some higher operating frequency.
Bias Voltage: A fixed DC voltage that establishes the operating characteristic of a circuit element such as a transistor.
Bit : Smallest digital data element, has a value of “0? or “1?.
Bodypack: Transmitter style that can be worn on the body.
Boundary/Surface Microphone: A microphone designed to be mounted on an acoustically reflective surface.
Capture: The effect of a strong FM signal suppressing weaker signals at the receiver.
Cardioid Microphone: A unidirectional microphone with moderately wide front pickup (131 degrees). Angle of best rejection is 180 degrees from the front of the microphone, that is, directly at the rear.
Carrier: The basic or unmodulated radio wave.
Cascade: Active antenna output port of receiver or antenna splitter than can feed another receiver or antenna splitter.
Close Pickup: Microphone placement within 2 feet of a sound source.
Comb filtering: the variations in frequency response caused when a single sound source travels multiple paths to the listener’s ear, causing a “hollow” sound quality and when walking around the perimeter of a venue the listener can hear drop outs of various frequencies. The resultant frequency response graph resembles a comb. Occurs when speakers are placed side by side instead of vertically stacking them. Can also occur electronically with multiple microphones picking up the same sound source.
Codec: Software algorithm for data compression and decompression (code-decode).
Compander: A two-step noise reduction system consisting of a compressor in the transmitter and an expander in the receiver.
Compressor: A device that controls varying signal levels.
Condenser Microphone: A microphone that generates an electrical signal when waves vary the spacing between two charged surfaces: the diaphragm and the backplate.
DAC: Digital-to-analog converter, also abbreviated D/A.
dBm: Ratio of power levels relative to one milliwatt, for example: 0dBm = 1mW, 10dBm = 10mW.
Decibel (dB): A number used to express relative output sensitivity. It is a logarithmic ratio.
DECT: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications, standard for digital cordless telephones, for example: 1920-1930 MHz in the US, different bands in other countries.
Demodulation: The recovery of the original modulating information from a radio signal.
Detector: The circuitry that performs demodulation.
Delay (echo): Reflection of sound that is delayed long enough to be heard as a distinct repetition of the original sound.
Deviation: The maximum frequency variation of an FM signal.
Diffraction: The bending or partial reflection of radio waves by metal objects.
Dipole: An antenna that is made up of two active elements.
Direct: Not reflected.
Distortion: Any unwanted difference between the original and final version of a signal.
Diversity: Receiver design that picks up a radio signal simultaneously at multiple locations and intelligently switches or combines to yield the best continuous signal.
Dropout: The complete loss of received signal due to multipath interference.
DSP: Digital Signal Processor, used in digital and hybrid radio circuits. For home theater, used to manipulate the signal source and create audio effects to simulate smaller/larger room size, more or less delay giving output more or less apparent ambiance to the listener's ears.
Dynamic Range: Maximum amplitude range of a signal or device, generally the difference between the strongest and weakest signals that occur or that the device can handle.
Echo: Time delay of an audio signal that is long enough (typically more than 20 milliseconds) to be heard as a distinct repetition of the original sound.
Electret: A material (such as Teflon) that can retain a permanent electric charge.
Encryption: Encoding a transmitted signal so that it can be decoded only with a unique digital “key”.
EM: Electromagnetic.
EQ: Equalization or tone control to shape frequency response in some desired way.
Equalizer: A signal processor that allows the user to boost or cut selected frequencies. Used for tone shaping and limited feedback control. Variations include graphic or parametric.
Expander: A circuit that expands the dynamic range of a signal by a finite ratio, typically 1:2 in a compander system.
Fade, Fading: Gradual increase or decrease in the level of an audio signal.
Fader: any digital or analog device used for increasing/decreasing a signal, especially when it is a knob or button that slides along a track or slot. A knob which rotates is usually not considered a fader, although it is electrically and functionally equivalent and known as a rotary fader.
Fading:Radio, Cellular Telephone or any wireless device: Loss of signal strength due to distance or obstacles in the signal path.
FCC: – Federal Communications Commission, US government radio regulatory agency.
Feedback: In a PA system consisting of a microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker, feedback is the ringing or howling sound caused by amplified sound from the loudspeaker entering the microphone and being re-amplified.
Feedback Killer, Squelcher, Finder: PA feature that is used to reduce/eliminate feedback. Some of which are automatic.
Fidelity:: A subjective term that refers to perceived sound quality: Low Fidelity, High Fidelity.
Field: A distribution of energy in space, for example: electric, magnetic, sound.
Flat Response: A frequency response that is uniform and equal at all frequencies.
Frequency: The rate of repetition of a cyclic phenomenon such as a sound wave. Usually measured in Hertz (Hz).
Frequency Agile: Having the ability to change frequencies: tuneable.
Frequency Diversity: Scheme that relies on statistical decorrelation of the same signal transmitted and received at multiple frequencies to minimize RF interference effects.
Frequency Hopping: Spread spectrum technique using continuous, synchronized frequency changes across a wide frequency range.
Frequency Response: Variation in amplitude of a signal over a range of frequencies.
Front End: Initial filter stage of a receiver when sound waves cause a conductor to vibrate in a magnetic field. In a moving-coil microphone, the conductor is a coil of wire attached to the diaphragm.
Gain: Amplification of sound level or voltage.
Gain-Before-Feedback: The amount of gain that can be achieved in a sound system before feedback or ringing occurs.
Geolocation: Ability of a TVBD to determine its geographic location.
Ground Plane: Electrical approximation of a zero-potential reflective surface at the base of an antenna.
GSM: Global Systems for Mobile Communications, mobile telephone standard, for example: 850 Mz and 1900 MHz in the US, different bands in other countries.
Handheld: Transmitter type that can be held in the hand.
Headworn Microphone: A microphone that is worn on the head.
Helical: Wideband directional antenna consisting of a single circularly-polarized element.
Hertz (Hz): A unit of measurement that represents cycles-per-second. The musical note “A” above middle “C” is equivalent to 440 Hz.
Hybrid: Radio design combining digital audio processing with analog transmission.
IEM: In-ear monitor.
IFB: Interruptible fold back, a cueing system used in broadcast.
IM: Intermodulation, frequencies produced by combinations of other frequencies in non-linear devices.
IMD: Intermodulation distortion (another name for IM).
IM Rejection: Ability of a receiver to reject IM products.
Impedance: In an electrical circuit, opposition to current flow of alternating current, measured in ohms. A high impedance microphone has an impedance of 10,000 ohms or more. A low impedance microphone has an impedance of 50 to 600 ohms.
Interface – Typically refers to a device that converts analog audio signals to a digital signal for connection to a personal computer, and vice versa. Digital audio interfaces can either be internal (on a PCI card) or external (with a USB or Firewire connection to the computer).
Indirect: Reflected or diffracted.
Inverse Square Law – Mathematical relationship in which one quantity is inversely proportional to the square of another quantity, for example: signal strength decreases according to the distance squared.
Isolation: Freedom from leakage; ability to reject unwanted sound.
Latency: A delay between the time that an audio signal is converted from analog to digital, processed, and transmitted, and the time that it is heard by the listener. Latency can very greatly depending on the software and file format used. Typical latency for audio ranges from a few milliseconds to over 100 milliseconds (1/10th of a second). If the delayed audio signal being is compared to an undelayed signal (such as a performer hearing his or her own voice) or to an undelayed visual reference (such as an audience member seeing the image of a live performer), delays of more than a few milliseconds can be noticeable to the listener.
Lavalier Microphone: A small microphone designed for hands-free usage. Usually clipped to the clothing.
Leakage: Pickup of an instrument by a microphone intended to pick up another instrument.
Level: The amplitude or strength of a signal.
Limiter: A circuit that limits the maximum level of a signal.
Line-of-sight: Preferred wireless operating condition where the transmit antenna is visible to receive antenna with no obstruction.
Log Periodic: Wideband directional antenna consisting of multiple logarithmic-spaced dipole elements.
Loss: Decrease in signal strength during transmission, propagation or reception.
Medium: Substance through which a wave propagates; for radio it may be vacuum, gas, liquid or solid; wave speed is affected by medium.
MP3: The most popular format for compressed audio files. When an MP3 file is created, the encoding software discards some of the data that is deemed to be unnecessary or redundant. The more data that is discarded, the smaller the file size but the lower the sound quality. MP3 is an audio-specific format that was designed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as part of its MPEG-1 standard and later extended in MPEG-2 standard.
Multitrack Recording: A method of recording where each instrument (or group of instruments) is recorded onto a separate track and later combined into a stereo mix. Common formats include 4, 8, 16, and 24-track recording.
Noise: Unwanted electrical or acoustic interference.
Omnidirectional Microphone: A microphone that picks up sound equally well from all directions.
Overhead Microphone: Microphones that are typically hung from the ceiling. Common applications are choir and theater miking.
PA – Public Address: Usually refers to a sound reinforcement system.
PAG: Potential Acoustic Gain is the calculated gain that a sound system can achieve at or just below the point of feedback.
Phantom Power: A method of providing power to the electronics of a condenser microphone through the microphone cable.
Polar Pattern (Directional Pattern, Polar Response): A graph showing how the sensitivity of a microphone varies with the angle of the sound source, at a particular frequency. Examples of polar patterns are unidirectional and omnidirectional.
Pop Filter: A screen, typically made of nylon or other tightly-woven mesh, designed to prevent plosives (loud, low frequency thumps caused by the consonants “p” and “t”) from reaching the microphone.
Power: Usually refers to the RF power delivered to the transmitter antenna, measured in milliwatts (mW).
Propagation: Ability of radio signal to travel a significant distance.
Protected Channels: Designated TVBD-free TV channels at a given location, defined by FCC rules.
Proximity Effect: The increase in bass occurring with most unidirectional microphones when they are placed close to an instrument or vocalist (within 1 ft.). Does not occur with omnidirectional microphones.
Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves that propagate a significant distance from the source.
RCV: Abbreviation for Receiver.
Receiver: Device that is sensitive to radio signals and recovers information from them.
Reciprocal: Property of a passive antenna to operate equivalently either in transmit or in receive mode.
Reflection: Retransmission of incident radio waves by metal objects.
Reverberation: The reflection of a sound a sufficient number of times that it becomes non-directional and persists for some time after the source has stopped. The amount of reverberation depends of the relative amount of sound reflection and absorption in the room.
RF: Radio frequency, generally taken to mean well above 20,000 Hz.
RFI: Radio frequency interference.
Ribbon Microphone: a dynamic microphone that incorporates a metal ribbon suspended in a magnetic field. Shure’s KSM313 and KSM353 mics are ribbon mics.
Rolloff: A gradua:l decrease in response below or above some specified frequency.
Sampling: Conversion of a continuous audio waveform into discrete digital values.
Selectivity: Measure of a receiver’s ability to discriminate between closely-spaced frequencies.
Sensitivity: The electrical output that a microphone produces for a given sound pressure level.
Shadow: Blocking of radio waves by reflective or absorptive (lossy) objects.
Shaped Response: A frequency response that exhibits significant variation from flat within its range. It is usually designed to enhance the sound for a particular application.
Shock Mount: A suspension system for mounting a microphone that reduces pickup of unwanted low frequency sounds caused by mechanical vibration.
Shotgun Microphone: An extremely directional microphone, commonly used in broadcast and film production applications.
Signal Processor: Any device or software plug-in that can manipulate the audio signal, in terms of level, frequency, time, or phase. Examples of signal processors include equalizers, compressors, delay (echo), and reverb. Signal processors can be used to correct problems with an audio signal, or for creative effect.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Overall useable amplitude range of a signal or device, generally the difference between some reference level and the residual noise level.
Sound Reinforcement: Amplification of live sound sources.
Squelch: Circuit in a receiver that mutes the audio output in the absence of the desired transmitter signal.
Spectrum: A range of discrete frequencies.
STL: Studio Transmitter Link, in the US: 944-952 MHz.
Stereo: Two channels of audio, left and right, which can be used to simulate realistic listening environments.
Supercardioid Microphone: A unidirectional microphone with a tighter front pickup angle (115 degrees) than a cardioid, but with some rear pickup. Angle of best rejection is 126 degrees from the front of the microphone, that is, 54 degrees from the rear.
Transducer: a device that converts one form of energy to another.
Transmitter: Device that converts information to a radio signal.
TVBD: Television Band Device, sometimes called White Space Device.
TX: Abbreviation for transmitter.
UHF:: Ultra high frequency (about 300 – 3000 MHz).
Unidirectional Microphone: A microphone that is most sensitive to sound coming from a single direction – in front of the microphone. Cardioid and supercardioid microphones are unidirectional.
USB: An acronym for Universal Serial Bus, a standardized interface designed to allow many different types of devices to connect to a computer.. USB also can provide power to low-consumption devices, negating the need for external power supplies. There are currently three standards: USB 1.1, USB 2.0 and 3.0. USB 3.0 is found on all new computers. For audio applications, USB 3.0 (which offers much faster data transfer rates) allows many more channels of audio to be streamed to the computer at once. There is also a micro-USB that used very smaller connectors. Found on cell phones and other small devices.
VCA: Voltage controlled amplifier, used in audio compressor and expander circuits.
VCO: Voltage controlled oscillator, used in radio tuning circuits.
VHF: Very high frequency (about 30 – 300 MHz).
Wavelength: The physical distance between successive complete cycles of a wave, inversely proportional to frequency, dependent on properties of medium.
.WAV: A file extension that refers to a standard for storing audio data. Commonly referred to as a WAVE file, it is short for Waveform audio format. The most common WAVE file stores full, uncompressed audio for the highest quality.
White Space: Unoccupied space between active TV channels.
Wideband: An FM signal in which the deviation is much greater than the modulating frequency.
.WMA: A proprietary Microsoft Windows audio file format and file extension designation.

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